PCOD(Polycystic Ovary Syndrome): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

What is PCOD?

PCOD is also known as PCOS which stands for Polycystic ovary syndrome. It’s a hormonal disorder which can cause the enlargement of ovaries. It can also cause the formation of cyst on the outer wall of the ovary.

This is a life long condition where it needs imaging and proper diagnosis along with treatment. However, it cannot be cured. Polycystic ovary syndrome is also known as stein leventhal syndrome.

PCOD can also be considered as a common reproductive endocrine disorder which can affect five percent of the population of women.

Polycystic ovary syndrome can cause the occurrence of an increase in the testosterone levels in the body. The androgens are secreted by ovaries of the women. Therefore it causes the growth of excessive hair on the face and also causes menstrual irregularity. In some cases, it is capable of causing infertility also.

How does it affect the body?

When high levels of insulin is secreted in the body, PCOD can occur. The high levels of insulin can also cause the secretion of an excessive amount of androgen hormones like testosterone in a woman’s body. Therefore it can cause symptoms like acne Breakout on the face, the growth of excessive hair on the face and neck region.

Patients with PCOD, it is harder to utilize insulin secreted in the body. It can also cause irregularity in the menstrual cycle.

If left untreated, it can also cause insulin resistance and lead to type 2 diabetes, among infertility and other complications.

What are the causes of PCOD?

 The main causes of PCOD are listed down as below:

  • the number one cause is that the level of androgens in the body increases significantly. Androgens are hormones like testosterone. It can cause overgrowth of hair on the face and neck region along with acne and infertility.
  • there are associations with excess insulin, low-grade inflammation, and genetics.

What are the risk factors of PCOD?

  • A lot of patients suffering from PCOS can be overweight or obese. Obesity is capable of producing sleep apnea.
  • Sleep apnea can lead to dangerous conditions like heart attack or diabetes.
  • Depression and anxiety are common among women suffering from PCOD.
  • Cardiovascular disease.
    Metabolic syndrome can occur in patients having PCOD. (generally having at least two of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, high fasting blood glucose). in some cases, it can be Endometrial cancer.

What are the symptoms of PCOD?

 The symptoms of PCOD are given down as below.

  • Women experience irregularity in their menstrual cycle.
  • Weight gain can occur which can also turn into obesity over a period of time.
  • Other menstrual symptoms include abnormal menstruation or the absence of menstruation. It can also cause spotting.
  • It can also cause acne on the face and growth of hair in excessive amounts which may be unwanted.
  • It can also cause pimples on the skin and oily skin formation in the t-zone area of the face.
  • Other symptoms include dark patches of skin in folds and creases, depression, inappropriate male features, loss of scalp hair.

What is the diagnosis for PCOD?

Your doctor will provide you with the diagnosis of PCOD in case there are the occurrence of these symptoms:

  • increased androgen levels in the body
  • the occurrence of acne or unwanted excessive facial hair and
  • cyst on ovary confirms via ultrasound and blood test.
  • A pelvic exam advised by the doctor may also be required.
  • The pelvic ultrasound or sonogram helps in determining the imaging of the ovaries.
  • ovaries may be 1½ to 3 times larger than normal when in PCOS. The ultrasound can show ovary changes in about 90% of women who have PCOS.

The blood tests are available for the diagnosis of PCOD and its confirmation. This will check for particular components in your blood namely:

  1. follicle stimulating hormone levels,
  2. luteinizing hormone levels,
  3. testosterone and oestrogen levels
  4. SHBG & endrostenedione
  5. Human chorionic gonadotropin
  6. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)

after getting diagnosed with PCOD, you must do the following tests.

  • Check your cholesterol and triglycerides levels,
  • check if you have diabetes or not,
  • check the amount of insulin you have.

What are the prevention and control measures or means required for PCOD?

 It is very important to exercise regularly in order to get through PCOS. Exercising regularly will facilitate proper blood circulation which may lead to the proper utilising of insulin in the body. This, in turn, can prevent the occurrence of diabetes in patients with PCOD.

Losing weight can definitely help in PCOD and can be effective in preventing infertility. In allopathic treatment, medication are provided with birth control pills in a combination treatment.

Patient suffering from PCOD can consider undergoing progestin therapy. In progestin therapy, the patient is required to take the hormone produced in 10 to 14 days after interval of one or 2 months.

To cause ovulation in your body, your doctor may prescribe you with clomid, metformin, femara, gonadotropin. For controlling excessive hair growth, spironolactone can be provided.

What are the treatment options for PCOD?

 Progestin therapy: Patient suffering from PCOD can consider undergoing progestin therapy. In progestin therapy, the patient is required to take the hormone produced in 10 to 14 days after the interval of one or 2 months.

Medication to cause ovulation: To cause ovulation in your body, your doctor may prescribe you with Clomid, metformin, Femara, gonadotropin. For controlling excessive hair growth, spironolactone can be provided.

Treatments include :

  • birth control pills to regularise periods,
  • medication called metformin to prevent diabetes,
  • statins to control high cholesterol,
  • hormones to increase fertility and procedures to remove excess hair.
  • A surgical procedure, known as wedge resection of the ovaries, where a portion of the ovary is removed to decrease the number of androgens produced by a Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) ovary can be performed.

What are the lifestyle tips for PCOD?

 This are the recommended Lifestyle tips for PCOD.

  • Maintain a proper diet, get enough sleep, Get Enough rest.
  • Exercise and workout regularly. This is an important step which helps you to utilize the insulin in your body.
  • If fertility is your immediate goal consider taking fertility therapies from the doctor.
  • Reduce the amount of stress as much as you can.

What are the recommended exercise for PCOD?

 There are no particulate exercise recommended for the treatment of PCOD, but one should workout regularly in order to go through PCOD. Your doctor will probably ask you to go running or perform cardio.

this may help in the reduction of weight and can reduce obesity. Furthermore, the hormone of insulin levels in the body may be utilized well if you perform exercise regularly.

What are the reactions with disease and pregnancy?

 The most common reason for infertility in women can be considered as PCOD. It can cause infertility among 5 million women currently.

However, women with PCOD can get pregnant. Some women go for treatments like in vitro fertilization where the doctor helps in couples counseling and educating them more about the process or procedure.

PCOD can also cause false results in the pregnancy test. Patients undergoing PCOD may not ovulate regularly or properly.

Women with PCOS are three times as likely to miscarry in the early months of pregnancy as are women without PCOS. It is advised to consult with your physician father about this. In case you want to get pregnant, opt for multiple therapies available.

What are the common complications of PCOD?

Women with PCOS are at increased risk for developing a metabolic syndrome. It is mischaracterized by:

  1.  abdominal obesity,
  2.  cholesterol abnormalities,
  3.  hypertension,
  4. and insulin resistance that impairs blood sugar regulation.

They are also likely to undergo endometrial cancer in severe and rare cases, if it is left untreated.

Prediabetes and sleep apnea can also occur as a complication in patients suffering from Polycystic ovary disorder.

Women with PCOD are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes along with cardiovascular disorders. It is advisable to maintain the body weight ratio and listen to the advice from your doctor.


Q. Can I still become pregnant with PCOD?

It is true that PCOD is one of the most prevalent reasons of infertility in women. However, women of PCOD can also have children. They have to undergo treatments like in vitro fertilization and other fertility treatments.

Q Are some ethnicities more prone to PCOS?

PCOS is found among all ethnicities of women, but is more common in Hispanic women, with an incidence rate of 13-14 percent compared to 5 percent in caucasian women. Outside of ethnic predispositions, there are also medical diagnoses such as sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and issues with insulin resistance, metabolism and glucose tolerance that can increase the likelihood of a PCOS diagnosis.

Q. How is ovulation stimulated in PCOS?

Medicines like letrozole can be provided by the doctor, it has to be taken at the same time everyday for five consecutive days. This will help in ovulation.

Q. How can I decrease the symptoms of PCOD myself?

You can start by eating a healthy diet. A low sugar diet will definitely help you in this case. Avoid skipping meals. Women suffering from PCOD arm more likely to gain weight over shorter time periods and become obese. Do not let obesity occur and exercise everyday to keep yourself fit as well as your body systems.

Q. Is losing/growing a significant amount of hair any reason for danger?

Women who suffer from PCOD can have a hormonal imbalance in their body. As a result, there is a loss of hair, usually in large amounts from the head. There is no Lethal danger, see the doctor as soon as possible. PCOD can also be a symptomized by the growth of unwanted hair in the face and neck region. Your physician will provide you with proper medication if you want to get rid of the facial hair.


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