Gonorrhoea or gonorrhea, is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is an infection of the genital tract of men and women. There may be no symptoms when a person has gonorrhoea.
Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact with an infected person which includes oral, anal or vaginal sex and not through normal physical contact. Retesting of gonorrhoea is recommended three months after treatment.
Gonorrhea affects about 0.8 percent of women and 0.6 percent of men.It is estimated that 33 to 106 million new cases occur each year, out of the 498 million new cases of curable STI which also includes syphilis, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Gonorrhoea caused about 700 deaths in 2015. More than 10 million cases per year are reported in India.
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How does Gonorrhoea affect your body?
Almost half of women with gonorrhea do not have symptoms, whereas others have vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, or pain with sexual intercourse associated with inflammation of the uterine cervix. Most infected men have inflammation of the penile urethra associated with a burning sensation during urination and discharge from the penis. In severe cases, gonorrhea may cause a general feeling of tiredness.A person may also have an allergic reaction to the bacteria.
What are the causes of Gonorrhoea?
Gonorrhoea is caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These bacteria can live inthe uterus, the cervix (entrance to the uterus), the urethra, the rectum, the throat and occasionally the eyes.
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What are the risk factors of Gonorrhoea?
Factors that may increase the risk of gonorrhea infection include:
- Younger age
- New sex partner
- Multiple sex partners
- Previous gonorrhea diagnosis
- Having other sexually transmitted infections (STDs)
What are the symptoms of Gonorrhoea?
About half of women and one in ten men with genital gonorrhoea won’t have any obvious symptoms. Symptoms can showup 1–14 days after coming into contact with the infection, many months later, or not until theinfection spreads to other parts of body.
Following are the symptoms:
- Unusual vaginal discharge which may be thin or watery, yellow or green in colour.
- Pain when passing urine.
- Lower abdominal pain or tenderness.
- Unusual discharge from the penis which may be white, yellow or green in colour.
- Pain while urinating.
- Painor tenderness in the testicles.
Apart from genital, other organs are also affected:
- Infection in the rectum and maycause anal pain, discomfort or discharge.
- Infection in the throat.
- Infection in the eyes and can cause pain, swelling, irritation and discharge.
How is Gonorrhoea diagnosed?
Urine test– Urine test may help identify bacteria in the urethra.
Swab of affected area– A swab of throat, urethra, vagina or rectum may collect bacteria that can be identified in a laboratory. While for women who are uncomfortable, a home test kit including vaginal swabs is available. After self-testing it can be send to a specified lab for testing.
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How to prevent & control Gonorrhoea?
- Use a condom or abstaining from sex is the surest way to prevent gonorrhea.
- Asking your partner to be tested for sexually transmitted infections can help the risk of it.
- If your partner has signs like burning during urination or a genital rash or sore, do not have sex with them until sure.
- Annual screening is recommended for all sexually active women less than 25 years of age and for men.
- To avoid reinfection with gonorrhea, abstain from unprotected sex for seven days after having completed treatment and after resolution of symptoms, if present.
Treatment of Gonorrhoea- Allopathic Treatment
Oralgemifloxacin (Factive) or injectable gentamicin, combined with oral azithromycin may be helpful in treating people who are allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone.
Infants born to mothers with gonorrhea receive a medication in their eyes soon after birth to prevent infection and if an eye infection develops, they can be treated with antibiotics.
Treatment of Gonorrhoea- Homeopathic Treatment
- Hydrastis– This is prescribed for chronic and acute gonorrhoea with persistent discharge without pain or soreness in urethra.
- Nitric acid– This is indicated for gonorrhoea with chancres and warts. This is also effective for urethra burns and discharge from urethra.
- Thuja– Thuja is effective for treating thin, watery, greenish discharge from the male urethra with dysuria and sensation as if drops trickled down the canal after urinating.
- Argentum Nitricum– This is prescribed during early stage of gonorrhoea.
- Medorrhinum– This medicine, often indicated for chronic ailments due to suppressed gonorrhoea, nocturnal emissions followed by great weakness.
- Arsenicum– This is indicated for gonorrhoea of females.
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Gonorrhoea- Lifestyle Tips
- Use latex condoms every time you have vaginal or analor oral sex.
- Avoid sharing sex toys andwash them or cover them with a new condombefore anyone else uses them.
What are recommended exercise for person with Gonorrhoea?
No specific exercise is recommended for person with gonorrhea.
Gonorrhoea & pregnancy- Things to know
- Most pregnant women with gonorrhea don’t show symptoms and also have some degree of protection against possible problems because fetal tissues can help protect the uterus and fallopian tubes from infection.
- In most countries, pregnant women are screened for gonorrhoea because the infection usually does not show symptoms and if present, may cause harm to the fetus.
- Pregnant women with gonorrhea can transmit the infection to the offspring during vaginal delivery.
- Symptoms in infected infants appear two to five days after delivery.
- Infected infants may develop scalp infections, upper respiratory infections, urethritis, or vaginitis and can also develop a rare and serious eye infection.
- Newborns are routinely given erythromycin ophthalmic ointment to prevent eye infections, thus gonorrhoea induced eye infection is prevented.
- Ceftriaxone and spectinomycin drugs are safe and effective for the treatment of gonorrhea in pregnancy.
Common complications related to Gonorrhoea
- Infertility in women.
- Infertility in men.
- Infection that may spread to the joints and other areas of the body.
- Increased risk of HIV/AIDS.
- Complications in infants.
Question: Can one get gonorrhea from a toilet seat?
Answer:No; you can’t get gonorrhea from toilet seats because the bacteria can’t survive in the open.
Question: Can you die from gonorrhea?
Answer: At present, there are no reported incidents of patients dying from gonorrhea.
Question: What does gonorrhea discharge look like?
Answer: Gonorrhea discharge that comes out of the penis or vagina is usually thick and yellowish while in other cases, it may be thin and watery.
Question: Does gonorrhea go away on its own?
Answer:The possibility for gonorrhea to go away on its own is highly unlikely.