Hyperopia (Hypermetropia): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hyperopia (Hypermetropia): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hypermetropia, also known as far-sightedness or hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina and results in close objects appearing blurry, while far objects may appear normal. As the condition worsens, objects at all distances may be blurry and people may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus.

Hyperopia primarily affects young children, with rates of 8% at 6 years and 1% at 15 years.Far-sightedness becomes more common again after the age of 40, affecting about half of people. More than 10 million people are affected in India per year.

How does Hypermetropia affect your body?

Far-sightedness causes the light to focus at behind, instead of on, the retina which makes the close objects to appear blurry, while far objects appear normal. With the worsening of condition, headaches and eye strain may occur.

What are the causes of Hypermetropia?

  • Axial hypermetropia is the commonest type in which the total refractive power of the eye is normal but there is axial shortening of the eyeball.
  • Curvature hypermetropia occurs when the curvature of the cornea, lens or both is increased than the normal, resulting in change in refractive power of the eye.
  • Index hypermetropia results due to change in refractive index of the crystalline lens with age.
  • Positional hypermetropia occurs from posteriorly placed crystalline lens of the eye.
  • Absence of crystalline lens is either due to congenital absence or acquired leads to aphakia.
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What are the risk factors of Hypermetropia?

  • Family history– A history of the condition can put you at risk of hypermetropia.
  • Diabetes– Diabetic patients are at increased risk due to change in refraction.
  • Certain medications– Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system can affect vision.
  • Tumors around the eye– Tumors especially surrounding the eye can increase the risks of change in eye vision.
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What are the symptoms of Hypermetropia?

  • Blurry vision
  • Headaches
  • Eye strain
  • Binocular vision
  • Difficulty with depth perception
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How is Hypermetropia diagnosed?

Diagnosis of hyperopia is based on clinical signs:

  • Visual acuity– Visual acuity varies with degree of hyperopia and power of accommodation. There is a decrease in visual acuity for seeing near objects.
  • Cover test– This test reveals an accommodative convergent squint. Due to altered accommodative convergence and accommodation balance, maintaining binocular vision becomes difficult.
  • Eyeball– Checking the size of the eyeball may be normal or small.
  • Cornea– Testing for cornea may reveal its slightly smaller size. This may also be associated with condition of cornea plana (flat cornea).
  • Fundus-This examination shows small optic disc which may look hyperaemic (vascular) with ill- defined margins.
  • Ultrasonography or biometry-Ultrasonography or biometry may show decreased antero- posterior length of the eyeball.
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How to prevent & control Hypermetropia?

  • Regular eye exams can help catch problems early.
  • If have chronic conditions that could affect vision, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, then yearly examinations can help prevent it.
  • If have glaucoma then follow your doctor’s treatment plan.
  • If developing changes in vision or have eye pain, red eyes, or a discharge from eyes, then consult a doctor.

Treatment of Hypermetropia- Allopathic Treatment

Farsightedness is treated by focusing light on the retina through the use of corrective lenses or refractive surgery.

  • Eyeglasses are prescribed to sharpen vision caused by farsightedness.
  • Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure requires the use of a laser to adjust the curves of the cornea that corrects the farsightedness.
  • Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) procedure uses a laser to reshape the cornea’s outer layers, changing its curve, and then replaces the epithelium.
  • Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedure includes removal of the epithelium and then reshaping the cornea.

Treatment of Hypermetropia- Homeopathic Treatment

  • Calcarea carb– This remedy is prescribed for far-sightedness due to chronic dilation of pupils and ulcers on the cornea.
  • Natriummur– This is indicated for weakness of vision due to fatigue of ciliary muscles and due to excessive watering of eyes.
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Hypermetropia- Lifestyle Tips

  • Regular eye checkup is necessary especially when the patient has diabetes or high blood pressure.
  • Protect your eyes from the sun and wear sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
  • Wear protective eyewear when playing sports, mowing the lawn, painting or using other products with toxic fumes.
  • Eat healthy foods and add leafy greens, other vegetables and fruits to your diet.
  • Don’t smoke because smoking can adversely affect your eye health.
  • The right lenses optimize your vision, thus wear right corrective lens.
  • Use good lighting and turn up or add light for better vision, especially while studying or reading.
  • Reduce eyestrain.Look away while using computer, every 20 minutes for 20 seconds at something 20 feet away.

What are recommended exercise for person with Hypermetropia?

  • William Bates method include palming and swinging; palming includes covering your eyes after rubbing hands to make them warm, for about 10 minutes every day. Whereas swinging includes focusing on something in the distance and then swaying from side to side while maintaining steady focus on the object.
  • Roll your eyes clockwise and anti-clockwise, each for about a minute.

Hypermetropia & pregnancy- Things to know

  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy can causehyperopia or the aggravation of already existent hyperopia.
  • These problems are usually not permanent and eyesight is restored to its natural state after delivery.

Common complications related to Hypermetropia

  • Strabismus
  • Amblyopia
  • Double vision as a result of over-focusing

FAQs

Question: How common is hypermetropia?

Answer: The condition is only a problem if it significantly affects a person’s ability to see and is estimated that over half the people who wear glasses are wearing them due to farsightedness.

Question: How does hyperopia affect vision?

Answer: People with hypermetropia involuntarily exert effort to maintain clear distance vision which cause fatigue, tension and discomfort.


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